Scientific Field Trips

All trips begin and end at the Washington State Convention Center unless otherwise indicated. Trip fees include transportation during the trip (unless otherwise noted); other services, such as meals and lodging, are noted with each trip (see key).

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Field Guide 49 Get Field Guide 49
From the Puget Lowland to East of the Cascade Range: Geologic Excursions in the Pacific Northwest
Edited by R.A. Haugerud and H.M. Kelsey

PRE MEETING

Click on title for description and more details.

Trip Description
The rich Quaternary history of the Pacific Northwest showcases the important linkages between multiple geologic processes that, in turn, have shaped the sedimentology and geomorphology of eastern Washington. This field trip will explore the evolution of landforms that developed within the Palouse and the Channeled Scabland – geomorphically distinctive areas that were indirectly and directly influenced by multiple Quaternary glacial outburst megafloods. These floods produced expansive fine-grained sediments that were subsequently remobilized by the wind to generate sand dunes, sand sheets, and the thick loess of the Palouse. During our trip, we will explore landforms and deposits that date from the last glacial maximum including dramatically eroded scabland features, coarse- to fine-grained flood slackwater deposits, sand dunes, loess, and soils. In addition we will systematically examine the sedimentary, paleopedologic and geomorphic evidence for similar magnitude glacial outburst megaflooding and loess accumulation that are related to the penultimate, isotope stage 4, glaciation. We will trace the windblown sediments from source to sink and particularly focus on Eureka Flat – the engine of the Palouse loess – and well-studied sections of thick loess farther downwind. A rich paleoclimate record is emerging from the loess stratigraphy and buried soils based on new luminescence ages, tephrochronology, and isotopic analyses.

The rich Quaternary history of the Pacific Northwest showcases the important linkages between multiple geologic processes that, in turn, have shaped the sedimentology and geomorphology of eastern Washington. This field trip will explore the evolution of landforms that developed within the Palouse and the Channeled Scabland – geomorphically distinctive areas that were indirectly and directly influenced by multiple Quaternary glacial outburst megafloods. These floods produced expansive fine-grained sediments that were subsequently remobilized by the wind to generate sand dunes, sand sheets, and the thick loess of the Palouse. During our trip, we will explore landforms and deposits that date from the last glacial maximum including dramatically eroded scabland features, coarse- to fine-grained flood slackwater deposits, sand dunes, loess, and soils. In addition we will systematically examine the sedimentary, paleopedologic and geomorphic evidence for similar magnitude glacial outburst megaflooding and loess accumulation that are related to the penultimate, isotope stage 4, glaciation. We will trace the windblown sediments from source to sink and particularly focus on Eureka Flat – the engine of the Palouse loess – and well-studied sections of thick loess farther downwind. A rich paleoclimate record is emerging from the loess stratigraphy and buried soils based on new luminescence ages, tephrochronology, and isotopic analyses.

Most of the field trip stops will be along the road close to the vans. Some of the outcrops and soil pits are only observable by hiking up a steep road cut. One stop requires hiking through rough terrain.

Primary Leader Email: Mark.Sweeney@usd.edu
Mark Sweeney studies eolian landscapes and processes in the Pacific Northwest, Great Plains, and Mojave Desert where he has focused on dust emissions and deposition from source to sink. His dissertation work at Washington State University studied the links between eolian sand and loess in the Pacific Northwest and the over-riding influence of glacial outburst flooding on the sedimentology and geomorphic evolution of southeast Washington. He is an associate professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of South Dakota. Sweeney has been studying eolian processes and landscapes his entire career. In 2002, he was co-leader of a Friends of the Pleistocene field trip that focused on outburst flood and eolian features in southeastern Washington. He continues to be active in research in the Palouse.

Trip Description
This four-day field trip will inspect late Pleistocene glacial and megaflood features in the eastern North Cascades and north-central Washington. This region was profoundly shaped by Cordilleran ice advancing down the Okanogan, Methow, and Chelan valleys and related drainage diversion, and catastrophic flooding from glacial Lake Missoula and glacial Lake Columbia—immense lakes impounded by ice lobes. These interactions between ice, water, and terrain produced an ice- and flood-sculpted landscape, including moraines and outwash terraces, immense flood bars, and spectacular eroded coulees. The trip will visit many of these features, discussing both old and new work, including how processes and events in this northwest corner of the Channeled Scabland affected the overall sequence of ice-age flooding. The trip will depart from Seattle, starting by way of the North Cascades Highway, first focusing on glaciation in the Methow Valley and Lake Chelan areas, then view flood and glacial features in the Columbia River valley, and then progress to Moses Coulee and Grand Coulee to discuss the interaction of the Okanogan ice lobe with scabland flooding and the erosion of these great coulees. The trip will return to Seattle via alpine moraines near Leavenworth and Stevens Pass.

Primary Leader Email: oconnor@usgs.gov
Extensive work on Ice-age flood features in the Pacific Northwest Field Trip Co-Chair (and guide editor), 2009 GSA Meeting

Trip Description
Only a few field-based studies have examined how metasedimentary rocks become incorporated into the mid- to deep crust of continental magmatic arcs, even though their presence has significant mechanical and geochemical consequences for the arc system. The Late Cretaceous–Eocene North Cascades is one of the only continental magmatic arcs in the world that exposes a sufficiently large amount of exhumed deep-crustal metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks to enable study of these processes. We will examine deeply exhumed bodies that represent the roots of the arc, including: the 8–10 kbar, partially migmatitic Skagit Gneiss Complex; the 9–12 kbar Swakane Gneiss; and the ≤ 11 kbar Napeequa Complex and Cascade River Schist units, representative of accreted oceanic and island arc rocks, which were intruded by North Cascades arc plutons and are presently interlayered and/or fault-bounded against Swakane and Skagit Gneiss rocks. Potential sediment sources from the present accretionary wedge (the western mélange belt), the forearc (Nooksack unit), and backarc (Methow terrane) to the North Cascades arc will also be observed. For all of these units from within and adjacent to the Cascades core, a comprehensive structural, metamorphic, and isotopic (U-Pb detrital, metamorphic, and melt crystallization ages; detrital zircon Hf isotopes; and whole-rock Nd isotopes) record will be used to evaluate how and when sediment is transferred into the mid to deep levels of arcs. Most of the field trip stops will be outcrops near the road, and trip participants should be comfortable with walking up to ~250 m.

Most of the field trip stops will be outcrops near the road, and trip participants should be comfortable with walking up to ~250 m. One stop requires walking ~0.25 mile along a flat trail and involves crossing two well-built bridges over streams.

Primary Leader Email: staciag@unr.edu
Stacia Gordon is currently a professor at the University of Nevada-Reno. She has worked in the North Cascades for >10 years and has longstanding interests in the metamorphic, partial melting, and crustal flow history of the Skagit and SwakaneGneisses. Her research has also focused on high-P metamorphism in other convergent margins (Caledonides, Himalayas, Papua New Guinea). She co-led a successful GSA trip to the North Cascades for the Portland (2009) meeting, and she has worked in the North Cascades and other convergent margin settings for more than 10 years.

Trip Description
This trip will leave Seattle the night of the 19th, and drive to Cle Elum, Washington. On the 20th, the trip will explore Shuksan greenschists and Darrington phyllite of the Cretaceous Easton Metamorphic suite, and Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous metaigneous rocks of the Hicks Butte complex just south of Cle Elum. We will then drive to the Kachess Lake area and visit the blueschist facies of the Shuksan, and briefly stop at an equivalent of the Chilliwack complex. After spending the night back in Cle Elum, on the 21st the trip will drive north along U.S. Highway 97 and explore the Jurassic Peshastin Formation and serpentinite of the Ingalls ophiolite complex. We will return to Seattle the night of the 21st. The leaders will present some initial tectonic synthesis that will be supported by age dating, whole-rock and mineral geochemistry, and structural data.

This trip is fully accessible with all stops and discussions in immediate vicinity of the vans.

Primary Leader Email: jmacdona@fgcu.edu
I have been conducting research on the Mesozoic rocks in the central Cascades for 15 years. Five of my peer reviewed publication and 24 abstracts have been presented on the Mesozoic geology of the central Cascades. I have published on geochemistry, tectonics, and U-Pb age dating. Finally, I have new and recently published data on these rocks that will help to educate and disseminate during the trip. Again, I have been working in this area for 15 years. I am very familiar with the area, including hotels, restaurants, and emergency contacts. I was the co-leader of the 2003 GSA annual meeting field trip to a nearby area that primarily focused on the Ingalls ophiolite. I have also been the coauthor on more than 8 geologic maps published the Washington State DNR that required extensive field work.

Trip Description
Sheets of sandy mud in salt-marsh peat record as many as nine tsunamis between 2,500 and 300 years ago at Discovery Bay, near the east end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca (doi: 10.1191/0956683605hl784rp). The 1964 Alaska tsunami was also notable here, while the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was not. This field trip will consider Discovery Bay’s salt-marsh stratigraphy, viewed in low-tide outcrops and in cores, as a guide to regional earthquake and tsunami hazards. The tsunami sources under consideration include the Cascadia subduction thrust, faults beneath the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound, and slope failures in these inland waters. The field evidence will be compared with results of numerical simulations of tsunamis from postulated sources. The combined findings pertain to earthquake recurrence on the Cascadia subduction thrust, and they point to previously discounted hazards from Cascadia tsunamis in Puget Sound. The trip begins early to take advantage of exposures during a morning low tide. Travel will be by van and ferry. A continental breakfast and a picnic box lunch will be provided. Additional food and beverages are available for purchase on the ferry. Bring a change of shoes and clothing for the ride home, as well as rain gear. Expect to walk on a gravel railroad grade for about 500 m; through knee-high marsh plants and uneven footing for another 100 m; and on sparsely vegetated mud. The mud can pull off loose-fitting shoes; lace-up boots or snug waders are recommended.

This trip will mostly take place in a tidal marsh.  From where we park our vehicles, the participants will walk on a gravel railroad grade for about 500 m (often choked with thorny weeds); through knee-high marsh plants and uneven footing for another 100 m; and on a sparsely vegetated mud flat that is slippery.  The trip would be a challenge for anyone in a wheelchair, unless they had considerable assistance (would need to be lifted and carried a distance) and didn't mind getting their chair muddy, and the chair would need to be equipped with specialized tires.  Those with balance or other walking limitations could participate, but again I feel that they would need assistance to keep from falling.  It can be hard for those without physical limitations to move around in the marsh, so with limitations it would be very difficult without a very strong and sure-footed companion to help them.

Primary Leader Email: cegl@uw.edu
Carrie has studied tsunami deposits at Cascadia coastal sites in California and in Puget Sound, Washington, including Discovery Bay, and Lynch Cove in Hood Canal. She has experience with numerical tsunami simulations, radiocarbon dating and age models, and diatom paleoecology and transfer function analysis of sea-level history. Her work at Discovery Bay is part of her doctoral research at the University of Washington. Carrie has led graduate student field trips to Discovery Bay to map and describe tsunami deposits for the last three years.

Trip Description
Archaeological evidence indicates that human occupation of the Central Puget Lowland began after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Changing environmental conditions throughout the Holocene affected the kinds of resources available to ancient peoples, the distribution of those resources, and the suitability of particular landforms for human occupation. Archaeological studies in the Puget Lowland provide information about how people responded to the environmental changes in the form of settlement patterns, resource use, and subsistence economies. Ethnographic and historical sources contain accounts of changing Native American land use after Euro-American settlement. Historical documents, maps, and aerial photographs contain information about homesteaders, developments in transportation, and the early agricultural and industrial pursuits that led to our modern cities. This field trip will provide a view of Central Puget Lowland Holocene formation history through a geoarchaeological lens. Geological points of interest visited on this trip provide the context for a variety of archaeological sites, such as shell middens on shorelines, inland resource procurement and processing campsites, and historical mills. Together, geological data and archaeological information collected from each location exhibit the geoarchaeological formation history of the Central Puget Lowland. By the end of the trip, participants will understand why archaeological sites in the Puget Lowland are difficult to find. Cultural resources management law will also be reviewed for those participants that may be interested in how archaeology relates to growth expansion. This field trip is best suited for geologists who are interested in Holocene processes and the interface between the natural and built environment.

This fieldtrip is composed of 12 stops that are accessible to attendees of varying physical aptitude with the ability to walk for at least 30 minutes at a time and stand for at least 1 hour at a time required as the minimum level of fitness. All walking will be on paved surfaces or in parks. There are slopes to traverse at a few stops, but the slopes are on well-worn paths. There is no hiking on this trip, but we will be walking for extended periods (up to 1 km) between parking areas and park shorelines, and especially around downtown Seattle (up to 3 km). The attendees will also have the option to walk along the beach across uneven surfaces at up to 3 of the stops (permission pending).

Primary Leader Email: brinck@swca.com
Brandy Rinck is a Project Manager and Geoarchaeologist at SWCA Environmental Consultants. She has directed the planning, permitting, and field operations for cultural resources assessments according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and other federal, state, and local laws and regulations for almost a decade. She has conducted hundreds of cultural resources investigations throughout Washington State, and also worked in Idaho, Oregon, Alaska, New York, New Jersey, and Hawaii. She performs cultural resources overview assessments, field surveys, site testing, data recovery, and archaeological construction monitoring. She also commonly conducts borehole monitoring and stratigraphic analysis, as well as archaeological sensitivity mapping. Her expertise enables her to combine geotechnical data with archaeological information to determine the cultural resources potential in a project area. She produces useful graphics, understandable detailed results, and concise recommendations. She exceeds the Secretary of the Interior’s minimum standards in archaeology and am a member of the Register of Professional Archaeologists.

Trip Description
Punctuated by steep hills and edged by cliffs and deep waterways, Seattle’s rapidly-growing urban area is constrained by a complex and active landscape that has been scoured, sculpted, and at times drowned in hundreds of feet of outwash deposits during repeated glaciations. Since the glaciers receded, rivers, landslides and volcanic mudflows have continued to modify—and destabilize—surface landforms while active crustal faults impose strong ground motion hazards on the young material that underlies much of the Seattle area. Consequently, combining these geologic hazards with glacial- and post-glacial deposits that have highly variable engineering properties creates challenges to the design and construction of major engineered structures such as tunnels and bridges. In this two-day field trip, we will discuss the local geology and present an engineering geology narrative of three major transportation projects that have improved the way Seattleites navigate through our city: the Sound Transit Light Rail Beacon Hill Tunnel project, the SR99 Alaskan Way Viaduct Replacement Tunnel (ongoing), and the SR520 Floating Bridge Replacement Project. During the first day, we will join trip 409 to visit locations where we can observe glacial- and post-glacial deposits that represent the subsurface building blocks of engineered structures. We will also observe the results of geological hazards in action, including landslides and field evidence for Holocene earthquake deformation. During the second day, we will visit the engineered structures and discuss the geologic challenges and the engineering solutions that arose during the design and construction phases. We will close with an obligatory trip to Seattle micro-breweries.

Most stops are readily accessible in the proximity of the van; however, there will be a 1 mile walk on day 1. One stop involves about 30 m travel on a narrow path with long grass, to the edge of a steep slope.

Primary Leader Email: WTL@shanwil.com
Bill Laprade, L.G., is a senior vice president at Shannon & Wilson, Inc., geotechnical and environmental consultants in Seattle. He has been practicing engineering geology, mostly in western Washington for 43 years. His areas of expertise are the interpretation of glacial and nonglacial soils for civil works projects, and landslide investigation and remediation. He co-authored the “Geology of Seattle, Washington” and was the principal author of the Seattle Landslide Study in 2000, a landmark in the understanding of landslides in the city. Bill is a Fellow of the GSA, and served as a member of the Washington State Geologist Licensing Board for eight years. Some significant local projects in which he has been the project manager or lead geologist include the Alki Slide Remediation, Downtown Seattle Transit Project (bus tunnel), the Denny CSO tunnel, Alaskan Way Viaduct and tunnel, the SR520 floating bridge and approaches, and Sound Transit Light Rail and Commuter Rail.

Trip Description
Seattle lies in the actively deforming Cascadia forearc some 80 km north of the southernmost extent of the Cordilleran ice sheet. Perhaps more than most cities, it is defined by its geologic hazards: earthquake, lahar, landslide, liquefaction. Euro-Americans seeking farmland and shippable timber settled here because of landscape features created by the Seattle fault. This trip introduces the geologic framework of the city with an emphasis on the last glaciation: thick deposits, extensive reshaping of the landscape, and a remarkable relative sea level history. The trip will be run in conjunction with the first day of trip 408. Prepare for rain and a beach walk on cobbles.

This trip (weather depending) will include a 1 mile walk.  The terrain is not steep and includes some stairs with handrails.  

Primary Leader Email: rhaugerud@usgs.gov
Haugerud has studied the geology of northwest Washington for over 40 years. He has intensively analyzed LIDAR topography of the region and has published geologic and geomorphic maps of areas near Seattle. He has co-led 2 GSA field trips, one IGC field trip, and several field trips for the local geologic society. He has lectured extensively to specialist and non-specialist audiences on local geology.

Trip Description
This field trip will explore recent landscape response and changing management of park resources at Mount Rainier National Park due to flooding, debris flows, and other geomorphic forces that the park has experienced in the last decade. We will visit areas that have been greatly affected by geologic forces and show how Mount Rainier’s park leaders have decided to manage these resources while attempting to minimize loss of recreational access and opportunities to visitors at Mount Rainier. The park has recently implemented an “imminent threats” program that uses adaptive management to address scientific-based multi-phased approaches for assessing, prioritizing, and mitigating flood hazards to park infrastructure. This field trip will visit locations within the park where this program has been successfully implemented. This single-day trip will depart Seattle and have stops on the West Side Road, Kautz Creek, Longmire and Paradise areas of the park. On the return leg, the participants will travel through the east side of the park and witness the changing look of Mount Rainier and its resources. This trip will highlight some of the work completed by NPS Geoscientists-in-Parks (GIP) Interns and present real solutions that have been implemented to address complicated issues of changing landscapes at Mount Rainier.

Primary Leader Email: scott_beason@nps.gov
Scott Beason has been an earth scientist for over 10 years and specializes in hillslope and fluvial geomorphology, and glaciology. Currently he is the Park Geologist for the National Park Service at Mount Rainier National Park. He provides technical assistance for the park on the effects of climate change to glaciers and the associated riverine and landscape response. He specializes in flooding and geohazards (including debris flows and glacier outburst floods) and strives to present the results in a manner usable by park management. Scott has first-hand knowledge about the dynamic nature of park geologic resources. Scott completed his Master’s work on river aggradation at Mount Rainier National Park in 2006 and was a technical expert in the response of park rivers to record floods that occurred in the fall of 2006. He has worked as a fluvial geomorphologist for ENTRIX Environmental Consults and provided technical assistance for numerous projects across the Pacific Northwest. At Mount Rainier, Scott maintains a network of real-time stream gages and continues the work to understand sediment transport in steep braided rivers. He also has led efforts into studying the conditions that lead to outburst flood and debris flow generation from stagnating glaciers across the park, including the development of early-warning systems to alert visitors and park staff in hazard-prone areas. Scott has led field trips with a similar itinerary to this trip every year since 2010 for park interpretative staff. During these field trips, which are team-taught by scientists from the United States Geological Survey and National Park Service technical staff, field results and interpretations of current research projects are shared to provide the front-like park rangers with the latest scientific data. From this, we are able to communicate science to the greater public and provide insight into the dynamic nature of park geologic resources in order to better manage our footprint in the park. Scott Beason has been an earth scientist for over 10 years and specializes in hillslope and fluvial geomorphology, and glaciology. Currently he is the Park Geologist for the National Park Service at Mount Rainier National Park. He provides technical assistance for the park on the effects of climate change to glaciers and the associated riverine and landscape response. He specializes in flooding and geohazards (including debris flows and glacier outburst floods) and strives to present the results in a manner usable by park management. Scott has first-hand knowledge about the dynamic nature of park geologic resources. Scott completed his Master’s work on river aggradation at Mount Rainier National Park in 2006 and was a technical expert in the response of park rivers to record floods that occurred in the fall of 2006. He has worked as a fluvial geomorphologist for ENTRIX Environmental Consults and provided technical assistance for numerous projects across the Pacific Northwest. At Mount Rainier, Scott maintains a network of real-time stream gages and continues the work to understand sediment transport in steep braided rivers. He also has led efforts into studying the conditions that lead to outburst flood and debris flow generation from stagnating glaciers across the park, including the development of early-warning systems to alert visitors and park staff in hazard-prone areas. Scott has led field trips with a similar itinerary to this trip every year since 2010 for park interpretative staff. During these field trips, which are team-taught by scientists from the United States Geological Survey and National Park Service technical staff, field results and interpretations of current research projects are shared to provide the front-like park rangers with the latest scientific data. From this, we are able to communicate science to the greater public and provide insight into the dynamic nature of park geologic resources in order to better manage our footprint in the park.

Student funding is available from GSA's Quaternary Geology & Geomorphology Division.

Trip Description
Deep-seated landslides are important controls on hillslope morphology, river profile evolution and landscape-scale denudation, and also can pose a substantial hazard to human life and infrastructure. This field trip will visit two regions in Washington State where large landslides have been pervasive, and discuss the geologic and hydrologic conditions that promote deep-seated failures, their frequency, and the impacts of large landslides on natural and human landscapes. The first stops will explore the North Fork Stillaguamish Basin, where deposits from the last glacial maximum have failed frequently over the Holocene, including the catastrophic 2014 Oso landslide. We will discuss the methods and results of a recently developed landslide chronology for the valley, as well as possible mechanisms of failure and mobility of the 2014 landslide and the river response to that valley-spanning deposit. We will then drive to the Nooksack Basin near Bellingham, where Eocene sedimentary rocks have produced numerous large slumps and high-mobility bedrock landslides. We will inspect surface expressions and gravel-pit exposures in the runout zone of a particularly large, multi-lobe bedding-plane failure, the Van Zandt landslide complex (VZLC). We will also discuss ongoing efforts to monitor growing fractures in the head-scarp region of the complex. Given the high human cost of the Oso landslide, and the clear but poorly defined risk at prehistoric sites like VZLC, we hope to foster discussions throughout this trip about how earth science is communicated to policy makers and the general public in the context of disaster avoidance, awareness, and response.

Primary Leader Email: aduvall@uw.edu
Alison Duvall received a BS in Geosciences from Virginia Tech, an MS in Geology from the University of California at Santa Barbara, and a PhD in Geology from the University of Michigan. In the fall of 2012, following a CIRES (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences) Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of Colorado at Boulder, she joined the faculty as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington. Alison is a geologist and geomorphologist who integrates the broad fields of surface processes, structural geology, and tectonics to tackle a host of questions relating to tectonically driven landscape evolution. She and her research team explore these topics at field sites around the world, including New Zealand and the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau, and in locations closer to home, such as the Cascades and the Wallowa Mountains of NE Oregon. Alison received the 2016 Luna B. Leopold Award (Earth Surface Processes early career award) at the annual American Geophysical Union meeting last December for her “contributions to fluvial, hillslope, and tectonic geomorphology that have fundamentally advanced understanding of landscape dynamics across a wide range of scales." She also delivered the Sharp Lecture in San Francisco as part of this honor. Alison is a respected researcher with substantial experience regarding landslide, hazards, and landscape evolution, including focused studies throughout the Pacific Northwest and in the North Fork Stillaguamish Basin.

Trip Description
This field trip will introduce participants to the glacial-interglacial stratigraphy on Whidbey Island. Field trip objectives will specifically address: (1). the source(s) and timing of the Puget Lowland Basin Fill [advance outwash of the Vashon Stade (last glaciation) and interglacial sources]; 2). origin of "flame structure" exposed in Double Bluff stratigraphy; 3). the timing and nature of pre-Vashon glaciation on Whidbey Island; 4). does field evidence support the existence of a Possession Glaciation (MIS 4) on Whidbey Island?; and (5). pre-Vashon paleo-structural controls on deep-seated landslide activity on the west shorelines of Whidbey Island.

Most of the field trip stops involve 1/4 - 2 mile walks along beaches (sand and gravel) to study bluff exposures.  There may be some climbing over logs and shoreline debris, depending upon tides.

Primary Leader Email: tswanson@uw.edu
I have 27 years of research, teaching and consulting on Whidbey Island geology. I have led over 100 field trips to Whidbey Island including two for GSA at prior meetings in Seattle and many for research specialty groups hosted by UW or other scientific organizations (NSF Cronus, FOP, QRC, NASA etc.). I also live on Whidbey Island (25 year resident) and walk the beaches with my dog and have found new exposures and field sites that are often missed by geologists who can only spend a few days or weeks mapping in the field. I have over 25 years of experience working on Whidbey Island as a geologist. I have advised over 20 students (4 graduate; 16 undergraduate) studying Whidbey Island geology/geomorphology. I am the primary or co-author on 5 peer-reviewed journal articles that pertain to the glacial history of this region.

Trip Description
The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens instantaneously disturbed the surrounding landscape on a grand scale. On May 18, 1980, an ensemble of volcanic processes including a massive debris avalanche, a directed pyroclastic density current, voluminous lahars, and widespread tephra fall abruptly altered landscape hydrology and geomorphology and created distinctive disturbance zones having varying impact on regional biota. On this trip, we will visit the Toutle River valley, which bore the brunt of the eruption, to discuss the volcanic processes and impacts of the 1980 eruption and the hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic responses to those eruptive impacts. We will visit Johnston Ridge Observatory directly across from the volcano and hike a short distance along Johnston Ridge (weather permitting), hike a 3.5 km loop trail (with about 100 m of elevation gain and loss) on the debris-avalanche deposit to examine outcrops and discuss geomorphic and ecological recovery in the upper North Fork Toutle River valley, and visit the US Army Corps of Engineers sediment retention structure to discuss on-going efforts at mitigating abnormal sediment delivery owing to erosion of the debris-avalanche deposit.

The trip includes stops at Castle Lake overlook, Johnston Ridge Observatory, Hummocks trail, and the US Army Corps of Engineers sediment retention structure. The stop at Castle Lake overlook is a viewpoint accessible to all; at Johnston Ridge the visitor center is accessible to all but a roughly 0.5 km hike along the ridge trail is limited to the able bodied. At Hummocks Trail, we will hike a 3.5 km loop trail that will entail up to 100 meters of vertical elevation gain and loss. The stop at the sediment retention structure is accessible to all.

Primary Leader Email: jjmajor@usgs.gov
Jon Major is a research hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington. He received his Ph.D. in 1996 from the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Washington. His research focuses on hydrogeomorphic responses to landscape disturbance, particularly in volcanic river systems. He has worked on groundwater flow in landslides, mechanics of deposition by debris flows, post-eruption sediment transport and streamflow hydrology, hydrogeomorphic response to dam removal, and analyses of debris-flow and flood hazards at volcanoes in Washington, Oregon, Alaska, El Salvador, Chile, and the Philippines. He is a fellow of the Geological Society of America (GSA), and has received the GSA E.B. Burwell Jr. Award (Engineering Geology Division research publication award), the GSA Kirk Bryan Award (Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology Division research publication award) and a U.S. Department of Interior Award for Excellence of Service. He has worked at Mount St. Helens for more than 30 years.

This trip is full.

Film

For a closer look at Geoscience Diversity in the field,
view this video from the National Science Foundation STEM For All.

Trip Description
With the need to support students with disabilities working in geoscience field courses, a fully inclusive and accessible field trip is proposed for the 2017 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington. This field trip has three primary objectives: (1) to provide a fully-inclusive field-based learning experience for students with a variety of disabilities (cognitive, deaf/hard-of-hearing, blind/low-vision, and orthopedic/mobility); (2) to provide a unique training opportunity for geoscience faculty learning how to accommodate students with disabilities in geoscience field courses, by pairing them with the students where they can learn from one another; and (3) to extend the findings of a two-year NSF-funded GEOPATH project that integrates technology into field-based learning experiences to promote access and inclusion. These objectives will drive the collaborative nature of this one-day field study where students and faculty will work with and learn from each other through their own experience and perspectives. The field trip will primarily focus on volcanic features located south of Seattle. Active learning will be an important part of this trip, at each stop students and faculty should expect to consider their surroundings and use their observations to make inferences about the processes which shaped, and continue to shape each location. The trip will be offered through invitation to students with disabilities to build on their interest in the environment, and to promote the geosciences as a viable degree and career option.

Primary Leader Email: christopher.atchison@uc.edu
Chris received a Ph.D. in Science Education from the Ohio State University and is currently is an Assistant Professor of Geoscience Education at the University of Cincinnati. He is a Past-Chair of the GSA Geoscience Education Division and Executive Director of the International Association for Geoscience Diversity (IAGD). His research focuses on enhancing access and inclusion in the Earth sciences through experiential learning opportunities for students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities. He has led multiple accessible field-based learning experiences for students and faculty with physical, sensory and cognitive disabilities. He has also created and taught professional development workshops focused on the principles of Universal and Inclusive Design for Learning, which promote the use of best instructional practices to accommodate and fully include students with apparent and non-apparent disabilities in geoscience classroom and field-based courses. This workshop has been presented both nationally and internationally to STEM instructors, graduate teaching assistants and K-12 teachers. Field Trip Experience: 2016 Co-Leader: 417: An Accessible Journey through Geologic Time in Central Colorado, Denver, CO 2014 Co-Leader: 416: Full Access to the Geology of the Sea-to-Sky Highway, Vancouver, BC.

Trip Description
This field trip explores the structural setting along the Seattle Fault Zone, from the town of Preston to Alki Point in West Seattle. It illustrates the structure of the Newcastle Anticline in this fold-and-thrust system, and the vertical displacement along the south side of the fault zone. The structural setting of the anticline is illustrated in the deformed rocks of the Renton, Tukwila and Blakely Formations, while recent vertical displacement is evidenced in Holocene marine deposits. The trip includes a lunch stop at the Cougar Mountain Regional Park to consider the role of this feature in the history of the Seattle area.

Primary Leader Email: john.figge@seattlecolleges.edu
I am a long-standing member of the faculty at North Seattle College, in the Department of Earth, Space and Environmental Sciences. I am best known as an instructor, but also as the author of a popular on-line textbook of Pacific Northwest Geology, of the Burke Museum website on the geology of Washington, and a past president of the Northwest Geological Society. A staunch proponent of student field experience, I have literally run hundreds of local and regional field trips over the years. This is a popular local trip drawn from my repertoire. I have run this field trip over a dozen times, and have prepared a ~50-page field guide to support it. My colleagues tell me that it is one of the best local trips in my stock.

POST MEETING

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Trip Description
This trip will investigate deposits related to the last major advance of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, the Sumas event, which shaped the landscapes of the Fraser Lowland. The timing and extent of ice advance and retreat during this event has been controversial, with divergent interpretations on either side of the Canada-US border. New LiDAR data, radiometric dating, and field evidence from both sides of the border provide crucial new constraints that promise to help resolve this controversy. During this one-day trip, we will visit key sites and exposures south of the border that display a remarkable and complex geomorphic and stratigraphic interplay between glacier fluctuations and sea-level transgression and regression. We will cover both the existing interpretations and the new information that helps resolve the various divergent hypotheses. In particular, we will evaluate evidence that the Sumas advance was both more extensive and culminated substantially earlier than previously recognized, and that it may be linked in part to ice dynamics rather than to strictly climatic causes. This field trip will examine excellent stratigraphic exposures, newly identified ice marginal landforms, and the chronological and paleoecological evidence used to infer paleoclimatic conditions in the region.

Primary Leader Email: doug.clark@wwu.edu
Doug Clark is an Associate Professor of Geology at Western Washington University. He received his BS and MS in Geology from Stanford University and his Ph.D. from University of Washington. He has worked on glaciation and geomorphic problems around the world, including central Asia, Australia/New Zealand, and North America. Most of his research, and that of his students, focuses on glacial histories in the western US and southern B.C. Doug Clark has been investigating the late-Pleistocene glacial geomorphology and stratigraphy of the Fraser Lowlands for the past 15 years. In addition, because WWU is located in the heart of the deposits that are the focus of the field trip, he has lead numerous field trips to many of the sites we will visit on this trip. Because he has also worked extensively with the excellent LIDAR data available for the region, he can readily construct high-resolution geomorphic maps of the various locations we will visit, which are crucial to establishing the glacial context for each site, and to connect the various interpretations across the region.

Trip Description
This three-day trip explores geology-viticulture-wine connections in 8 of Washington's 14 America Viticultural Areas (AVAs). From Seattle via Stevens Pass, the route traverses mountainous terrain to Lake Chelan AVA. A lakeside-winery lunch and wine tasting highlights impacts on viticulture of mountainous topography and thermal mass of 450-m-deep Lake Chelan. Continuing south along the Columbia River we see Chelan Migmatite, Columbia River Basalt, and the "Great Terrace" of outwash and last Missoula floods. A winemaker dinner in Ancient Lakes AVA ends day one. Day two travels south along the Columbia through Sentinel Gap in anticlinal Saddle Mountain to Wahluke Slope AVA, on a 30-km-long fan delta from peak discharges of Missoula floods. After lunch and vineyard visits, continue to Red Mountain AVA to witness how turbulent Missoula mega-floods created Red Mountain's complex soils, dramatically impacting vines and wine. We'll taste wine in its newest vineyard near the summit of Red Mountain where the panorama includes Yakima Fold belt structures and Missoula-flood-influenced topography. Day two concludes with a winemaker dinner in the Walla Walla Valley. The morning of day three highlights four distinctive terroirs of the Walla Walla Valley AVA based on basalt bedrock, Missoula-flood slackwater sediments, loess, and basaltic cobblestone alluvium of the Rocks District of Milton-Freewater AVA. Return to Seattle via Yakima Valley and Snipes Mountain AVAs with stops and lunch featuring viticultural influences of Miocene-Pliocene Ellensburg Formation and Snipes Mountain Conglomerate.

Primary Leader Email: alan@vinitas.net
Alan was professor of soil science, agriculture, and geology from 1982 to 2006 at Washington State University. With a growing personal and professional interest in vineyard consulting, wine grapes, and wine, Alan left WSU in 2006 to pursue a new path. Alan now lives and works in the Columbia Gorge area 70 miles east of Portland, Oregon. He co-owns Volcano Ridge Vineyard near The Dalles, Oregon and sells grapes to about 15 wineries. He also has Vinitas Vineyard Consultants, evaluating land nationally and internationally for vineyard development and consulting across the U.S. on hydric soils and wetland litigation. And he owns Heart Catcher Wines, using his estate-grown fruit to craft terroir-expressive wines. From 2013 to mid-2014, Alan served as Director of the Center for Enology and Viticulture at Walla Walla Community College, the premier two-year winemaking degree program in the Pacific Northwest and as General Manager of the program’s bonded winery, College Cellars, but now he is back full time where his heart is, in the Columbia Gorge. Alan earned his B.S. degree in Earth Sciences from U.C. Santa Cruz, worked for several years for the U.S. Geological Survey, then earned M.S. & Ph.D. degrees in Soil Science from U.C. Davis. His teaching at WSU focused on processes of soil formation, soil management, Ice-Age geology, and world agriculture. His research areas were the Ice-Age geology of the Pacific Northwest, study of paleosols in deep loess sections to reconstruct Quaternary paleoclimates and paleoecology, the formation and properties of soils of the Pacific Northwest, and how geology and soils have shaped agriculture and our use of natural resources. 35 years of experience in NW geology and soils, 25 years of teaching experience including leading dozens of successful multi-day field trips for students through international geology and soil science groups, and 20 years of private consulting in vineyard site evaluation and vineyard development nationally and internationally.

Trip Description
The Puget Lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet extended across the Puget Lowlands in Washington state numerous times during Pleistocene glacial periods. The ice sheet largely terminated into a marine basin and, therefore, was susceptible to glacial and marine processes, similar to marine-based sectors of the contemporary West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Coastal cliffs are composed of glacial and interglacial deposits, now exposed subaerially by post-glacial rebound. Although the glacial history of the Puget Lowlands has been a topic of research for over a century, recent efforts to combine stratigraphy and glacial geomorphology has shed light on former ice sheet grounding lines (i.e. the downstream-most location ice is in contact with the bed) with compelling evidence for the presence of a series of back-stepping grounding zone wedges that formed by progradation and aggradation due to sediment delivery to the retreating ice margin during the Fraser Glaciation. We will explore outcrops of these landforms to assess the processes acting at grounding lines on a larger scale and at higher resolution than capable with geophysical surveys and sediment cores of contemporary and ancient grounding zone wedges. The field trip will include a transect of sites on Whidbey Island that demonstrate changes in ice flow controlled by bed characteristics, ice pinning on topographic highs, subglacial meltwater transport, the internal architecture of grounding zone wedges and processes that acted at former grounding lines.

Primary Leader Email: johna@rice.edu
Anderson is a professor at Rice University and has worked on both the former Cordilleran and Antarctic ice sheets, offering a unique perspective on past behavior of marine-based ice sheets. Anderson has supervised graduate students working on the glacial history of the Puget Lowlands and led numerous course field trips to Whidbey Island over the past 30 years.

Trip Description
This three-day trip will highlight new research in the Yakima folds of central Washington. Field trip stops will focus on style of folding, relation of folds to underlying thrust faults, uplift history of deformed Yakima River strath terraces, and time duration of folding relative to the emplacement history of Columbia River flood basalts. We will discuss the utility of gravity data, high-resolution aeromagnetic data, structure from balanced cross sections, neotectonic mapping on high-resolution LIDAR, paleoseismic trenching and cosmogenic and detrital age dating techniques, all of which have recently added new insight into the structural history of the area. Potential seismic hazards to infrastructure, such as hydroelectric dams and facilities of the Hanford nuclear site, will be discussed. The trip will depart from Seattle eastbound over Snoqualmie Pass, discuss Quaternary deposits and fault scarps in Kittitas Valley, and traverse down the Yakima River canyon visiting research sites within the Manastash and Umtanum anticlines en route to the end of Day 1 in Yakima, Washington. Day 2 will examine components of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, specifically the Rattlesnake Mountain anticline/Wallula fault zone, observe within the Saddle Mountains anticline deformed Miocene strata, as well as deformed Pliocene and Quaternary strata, then overnighting in Wenatchee, Washington. Day 3 will discuss fold structure near Table Mountain, review the recently discovered scarp generated by surface rupture during the 1872 North Cascades earthquake and discuss possible active tectonism on the Entiat fault. The trip will end with an ascent over Blewett Pass en route back to Seattle.

Days one and two: each day involves five stops with three stops being fully accessible and two stops having hikes greater than 100 m in length over rough terrain. Day three; all three stops are fully accessible.

Primary Leader Email: hmk1@humboldt.edu
Kelsey has been actively involved in field research in the Yakima folds area for the last 7 years in collaboration with geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey and as a mentor of graduate student research. His focus has been the Manastash range front and the Mansatash anticline.

Trip Description
The relationship between structurally isolated Paleogene nonmarine sedimentary sequences in central and western Washington, associated volcanic rocks, dike swarms, and major high-angle faults has been a longstanding problem that has resulted in a variety of tectonic interpretations. Our high-precision U-Pb zircon geochronology, combined with detailed stratigraphic and structural studies, demonstrate a four-part history between ~60 and 45 Ma: a regional “forearc” basin with little magmatism from ~ca. 60 to 51 Ma, shortening and basin disruption between 51.3 and 49.9 Ma, widespread bimodal volcanism and acceleration of dextral strike-slip faulting at 49.9 Ma, and a return to a regional depositional system after a fault reorganization at ~ca. 45 Ma. This history can be linked to events along the continental margin including accretion of over thickened oceanic crust belonging to the Siletzia terrane and migration of a triple-junction. During this trip, we will visit outcrops that help illustrate this history and discuss the broad tectonic setting of these rocks.

This trip mostly visits road cuts and should be accessible for people who are comfortable walking up to 200m on easy terrane.

Primary Leader Email: meddy@princeton.edu
Mike Eddy is currently a postdoctoral researcher at Princeton University. As part of his PhD research at MIT (2016), he placed improved constraints on the timing of deformation, volcanism, and sedimentation in the sedimentary sections that will be visited during the field trip, as well as key Eocene parts of the adjacent North Cascades crystalline core. Mike maintains an interest in the broad tectonic evolution of the Pacific Northwest throughout the Cenozoic. This will be the first GSA Field trip that Mike has led. However, over the past 5 years he has spent 7.5 months in the North Cascades doing field based geological research and is very familiar with the area both in terms of high-impact scientific stops and logistics.

Trip Description
The Mima Mounds near Olympia, Washington are extensive arrays of earthen mounds up to 2 m in height that have drawn much speculation as to their formative mechanism since they were first discovered during early expeditions of the Northwest. The mounds are formed almost exclusively of A horizon material unconformably lying atop a soil developed on LGM outwash. These picturesque features serve as the archetype for similar appearing mounds worldwide; numerous mechanisms have been proposed for their formation including native American burial grounds, tailings from gopher burrows, seismic shaking, and erosion. There is no doubt that multiple mechanisms can form earthen mounds and the focus here is on the Mima Mounds. This excursion will visit the Mima Prairie to view their surface expression and extensive network across the landscape. We will also visit a gravel quarry where mound profiles and underlying outwash gravels from the LGM can be observed. We will review the various mechanisms that have been proposed for their formation. For this tour we are providing new information on the longevity of the mounds based on cosmogenic isotope dating as well on the nature of the organic matter and its carbon age within the mound. We will have an open discussion on the relative merits of the leading hypotheses for Mima Mound formation. A sack lunch and water/soft drinks will be provided.

Primary Leader Email: sletten@uw.edu
I have had a long interest in understanding the nature and formative mechanism of the Mima Mounds since the first time I was asked by Linc Washburn to analyze organic carbon in the soils that make up the mounds. I have made observations of the mound diffusion and presented abstracts of the age of the mounds based on the time required to build up enough A-horizon material as well as on the slow diffusion of the mounds. I have worked in studies of soil development and carbon characterization that are relevant to the compositions of the Mima Mounds. I have led tours to the Mima Mounds twice before for the Soil Science Society of America (1994) and for AMQUA (2014), as well as numerous informal tours for colleagues. I will be providing new data of the age and nature of the composition of the mounds as indicated in the abstract. I will draw on the expertise of other colleagues at the University of Washington for their input including Charlotte Schreiber, Alan Gillespie, John Stone, Bernard Hallet, and Ben Fitzhugh.